Clinical depression – major, post-partum, atypical, melancholic, persistent

You’ve probably come out of a particularly sad movie and said something like: “Man, that was depressing.” In this case, you’re talking about how, at that moment, the movie made you feel sad, discouraged, hopeless,
or anxious. You probably wouldn’t say something like: “Man, that movie was clinically depressing.” The latter expression refers to a much different state of depression. Clinical depression, which is sometimes called major depressive disorder or unipolar depression, is a serious mental disorder that has a lifetime incidence of up to 20% in women and 12% in men, making it one of the most common reasons people seek out mental health services. That being said, as well as being relatively common, clinical depression is, in fact, very serious. It’s so serious that it interferes with someone’s day-to-day life, like working, studying, eating, and sleeping, essentially leading to this overall feeling that life isn’t enjoyable. But what causes someone to feel this way? Well, we don’t exactly know what specifically causes clinical depression, especially since it can be so different between patients. It’s probably a combination of factors, though, like genetic factors, biological factors, environmental factors, and psychological factors. It’s been shown that people with family members who have depression are three times more likely to have it themselves, and this link seems to increase with how closely related family members are. Biologically though, most medications focus specifically on neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are signalling molecules in the brain that are released by one neuron, and received by receptors of another neuron. When that happens, essentially, a message is relayed from one neuron to the next. Regulation of how many of these neurotransmitters are being sent between neurons at any given time is thought to play a super important role in the development of symptoms of depression, since they’re likely involved in regulating a lot of brain functions, like mood, attention, sleep, appetite,
and cognition. The three main neurotransmitters that we focus on for depression are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Why do we focus on these three? Well, because medications that cause there to be more of these neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, the space between the neurons, are shown to be effective antidepressants. And this finding lead researchers to develop the monoamine-deficiency theory, which says that the underlying basis of depression is low levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine, which are all called monoamines, because they have one amine group. Additionally, it’s thought that each of these might have an impact on certain sets of symptoms with depression, like norepinephrine on anxiety or attention, or serotonin on obsessions and compulsions, or dopamine on attention, motivation, and pleasure. So, if one of these is down, then that could lead to a set of specific symptoms being felt by the patient. Serotonin, in particular, is thought to be a major player. Some theories suggest it’s even capable of regulating the other neurotransmitter systems, although evidence supporting this theory is still pretty limited. Some hard evidence implicating serotonin in depression has to do with tryptophan depletion, which is the amino acid the body uses to make serotonin. So, if you take it away, you can’t make as much serotonin, and it’s been shown that when the body can’t make as much serotonin, patients start getting symptoms of depression. So that’s all well and good but, unfortunately, the reasons why serotonin, or other neurotransmitters, might be lost or decreased in depressed patients in the first place isn’t well known, and research remains ongoing. Ultimately, development of depression is complicated, right? It involves these biological components in combination with the genetic components, as well as environmental factors, which could be specific events like a death or a loss, or sexual and physical abuse. In order to diagnose clinical depression, patients must meet certain criteria that are outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the fifth edition. First they must first be affected by at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms most of the day, nearly every day: depressed mood, diminished interest or pleasure in activities, significant weight loss or gain, inability to sleep or oversleeping, psychomotor agitation, like pacing or wringing one’s hands, or psychomotor impairment, like, this overall slowing of thought and movements, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, lowered ability to think or concentrate, and, finally, recurrent thoughts of death, or suicidality, including suicidal thoughts, with or without a specific plan, as well as suicide attempts. And these symptoms must cause significant distress in the patient’s daily life. Also, the depressive episode can’t be due to a substance or other medical condition, the symptoms can’t be better explained by another mental disorder, like schizoaffective disorder and, finally, the patient can’t have had a manic, or hypomanic, episode, at any point. Additionally, sometimes major depressive disorder can be divided into subtypes, or closely-related conditions. Postpartum depression is a subtype that can happen following childbirth, although studies have shown that, in many cases, onset of depression occurs prior to childbirth as well, so it’s now diagnosed as depressive
disorder with peripartum onset, in other words, the onset happens during pregnancy, or four weeks following delivery. It’s not quite understood why this happens, although hormonal changes likely play a role, especially oestrogen and progesterone. Also though, an abrupt change in lifestyle might be an important causal factor, especially because this can happen in men, as well as women. Atypical depression is another important subtype
that’s characterised by an improved mood when exposed to pleasurable or positive events, called mood reactivity. And this is in contrast to other subtypes like melancholic depression, even during what used to be pleasurable events. Also, atypical depression often includes symptoms
like weight gain or increased appetite, oversleeping, heavy-feeling limbs, also known as leaden paralysis, and rejection sensitivity, essentially, feeling anxiety at the slightest evidence of rejection. Finally, dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder, is sometimes used to describe milder symptoms of depression that happen over longer periods of time, specifically, two or more years with two or more of the following symptoms: a change in appetite, a change in sleep, fatigue or low energy, reduced self-esteem, decreased concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness or pessimism. Knowing that so many factors are probably involved in depression, it can be a challenge to treat, although, with the right treatment, 70-80% of patients with clinical depression can significantly reduce their symptoms. Treatment can come in many forms, and are most commonly grouped into one of two major categories: one, non-pharmacologic approaches, in other words, things other than medications, and two, pharmacologic approaches, either a single medication or combinations of medications. Starting with a non-medication approach, a number of studies have shown the benefits of physical activity in helping with depression. There are various reasons why it’s thought to work, ranging from the release of neurotransmitters, endorphins, and endocannabinoids, to raising the body temperature and relaxing tense muscles. Regardless of the exact mechanisms, data suggests that exercising for 20 minutes, three times a week can help alleviate depression symptoms. There’s also a lot of research exploring the relationship between diet and depression, and although there are no “silver bullet” foods, many experts suggest healthy eating
habits, like more fruits and veggies. Beyond physical activity and healthy eating, which is more helpful for a number of reasons, another major non-pharmacologic approach is psychotherapy, or “talk therapy”, which is definitely preferred for young patients and for those with milder symptoms. There are a few popular approaches including cognitive behavioural therapy and interpersonal therapy, and the most important thing here is that these approaches depend heavily on the relationship between the patient and the therapist, as well as the clinical skills of the therapist. If patients have more severe depression, or mild depression for a long period of time, then antidepressant medication might be prescribed along with the therapy. The most commonly prescribed medications are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. In the synaptic cleft, after neurotransmitters get released, those neurotransmitters are normally reabsorbed. SSRIs block the reabsorption, or inhibit the reuptake, of serotonin, which means that there’s going to be more serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Other classes of antidepressants that are less commonly prescribed are monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs, and tricyclics. As a final, last-line treatment for severe depression, ECT might be performed, under written consent. ECT stands for electroconvulsive
therapy, and is when a small and controlled amount of electric current is passed through the brain while patients are under general anaesthesia, and this induces a brief seizure. Although ECT’s been used for decades, and actually does seem to be effective for about 50% of patients, the reason why electrically-induced seizures seem to improve symptoms is not well understood. Alright, clinical depression is tough right? Both for those experiencing it and for those trying to help treat it. Unlike many other illnesses, depression carries with it a lot of social stigma and can lead to moral judgements that can make a person with depression feel even worse. Love and support from friends and family helps tremendously, and having a strong social support network has been proven to lead to better outcomes. Thanks for watching! You can help support us by donating on Patreon, or subscribing to our channel, or telling your friends about us on social media.

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  1. Watching this video, I'm now confident I'm depressed. In fact, I think I've had it since fifth grade (I'm 25 now), but I'm kinda coping with it. A diet change is something I'm doing right now, though I still can't get off sweets and pastry – darn feel good foods! And soon, I'll go back to dance class, so it'll be better. Social interaction is still a pain though.

  2. It never goes away
    Depression won't go away ever
    I had it for fucking 4 years and I hasn't went away yet
    Clincal depression is cruel and horrible
    What sin or crime have I commited to deserve such a thing?!

  3. Havin therapy helps…

    But I Question- will my depression ever end?

    Once somethin stops there’s another phase that kicks in… other than extreme emotional breakdowns mix with Paranoia… then rage is added to the list once being friends with non living objects was a phase till that ended…

    Tho I wish I gotten therapy way sooner… personally feel like I would Hav gotten it 5 or 6 years ago… but instead it head to be almost the end of my 12th grade year… & it been to the extreme most times these days… minor to major just like in this vid was explainin… be 20 next month & college is Hard with depression- even focus meds don’t work well if my depression doesn’t let me focus in the 1st place (true example) tho…

    Paranoia issues, Social issues, Trust issues, controlling my Emotions been way harder…

  4. I often wonder what it’s like not to be depressed not to dread the sunrise (I don’t understand people enjoyment of this ) not to wish you had never been born cuz what the hell is the point ? And so many other things I wish there was a magic pill to make you feel normal even if it was temporary

  5. I came here from a YouTubed called Emily Kitty saying that she was diagnosed with clinical depression so I came here because I searched it what it was

  6. I have this kind of depression and once i was stressed about breaking up with my boyfriend i was unaware i was so into my thoughts i forgot that i was still with my bf and i didnt commit suicide. I also started crying and it was mortifying.

  7. I can't see real future for myself but I have so much that I want to do, Im just too tired all the time and lack motivation

  8. Started at age 13 now 17. I've tried to talk to the school counselor. Nobody cares. I'm at my lowest point where i'm dropping out of school. Each day it gets worse and worse. I don't know if soon i'll actually kill myself..

  9. I feel annoying for bringing this p, but, what about emotional/verbal abuse? i have mdd and it was caused by emotional abuse, and still persists to this day. I feel so low and sad and i just want to hide away, because of this abuse, and it has basically ruined my once happy healthy life.

  10. My friend always joke about depression. It makes me very uncomfortable beacuse i have depression. How do i make her stop?

  11. I became depressed becoz of over load of exam..n staying in continuous anxious state..its a clinical depression.. can it ever be cured?

  12. I've gotten used to it, who cares anymore? It'll never go away and I know that..I hope there's a life after like reincarnaiton..I did nothing to deserve this, what sin have i done to possibly deserve this type of life? I know some horrible people that are rich happy, yet..I'm just asking for some happiness and love from my family, a woman recently told me she had depression for 50 years, I lost hope when I heard that tbh I just can't do this anymore

  13. *Your body isn't paper
    Don't cut it

    Your life isn't Infinite DONT end it

    Your Family isn't Horrible don't leave them

  14. Anyone suffering from depression or anxiety related mental disorders should try reading the power of now by eckhart tolle or try listening to his talks on youtube

  15. well I have all 9 symptoms, but my doctor at the time just said,

    it was schizotypal personality disorder, I'm going to talk to my doctor tomorrow,

    about getting antidepressants.

  16. I have 6 of those symptoms…the one that occurs most Is CONSTANT thoughts of death (1 suicide attempt) and a lot of suicidal thoughts

  17. As time gets by, I am 15 now. My depression I think started when I was 9 years old.

    I never had much happiness, always being bullied from elementary to highschool.

    I also got my depression from my mother and father, and I think I have it 3x now.

    It still hard to get by, as I think about death 24/7.

    But I'm here still coping around, trying to have a healthy function.

    To anyone who has depression, may God be with you. You can do this.

  18. Your Neck isn’t a shirt, so don’t hang it
    Your skin isn’t paper so don’t cut it
    Your heart isn’t a door, so don’t lock it.
    Your life isn’t a film, so don’t end it
    Remember guys, suicide doesn’t heal pain, it passes it on to someone else.

  19. Anyone suffering from depression needs to read the depression cure by Steve illardi and feeling good by David burns. Thank me later…

  20. It’s like being in a very deep swimming pool with weights on both of your legs.
    You’re constantly sinking and it’s incredibly hard to come to the surface.
    You may occasionally managed to get to the top to take a quick breathe of air, but you very quickly get tired of keeping at the top and the weights start pulling you down again.

  21. I tried Cognitive Behaviour Therapy…
    turns out that I wasted a whole year cuz it’s not just myself making me depressed 🙃

  22. Suicide, I've tried it so many times…
    Amazing how many times I've come a few meters from death and survived
    I've stuck to cutting now

  23. I use to self harm. I went to a psychologist but i'm not diagnosed with depression, so i don't know what am i going through. Am i faking it? It sure doesn't feel like it. But some part of me tell me that i am. Because of that i always feel numb. I hate my school also. The students there make fun of self harm (they don't know that i used to do it) they sometimes draw red lines all over their hands with a red marker and then act as if they're crying. The worse part is the people who do that sit right in front of me. I get triggered the first time i saw them do that, i even snap and yell at them. But now i just don't care. I still feel uncomfortable when they do it but it doesn't trigger me anymore.

  24. The Lord Jesus Christ loves you unconditionally!!!
    Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me
    Thank you for reading.
    The Lord bless you and keep you; The Lord make
    His face shine upon you, And be gracious to you; The Lord lift up His countenance upon you, And give you peace
    Have a good day! Amen in Jesus Christ precious name.
    In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you
    Master, which is the great commandment in the law?
     Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.
     This is the first and great commandment.
     And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
     On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
    Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?
    If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.
    Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.
    My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
    And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
    So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
    Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall.
    Delight thyself also in the Lord: and he shall give thee the desires of thine heart.
    Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.
    Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body.
    What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?
    But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
    Bless the Lord, O my soul: and all that is within me, bless his holy name.
    Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits:
     Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases;
    Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny.
    And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription?
    They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.
     For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.
     He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
     And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.  For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.
     But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
    And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
     Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?
     He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God.
    The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.
    Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
     Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
     Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
    The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
    No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.  Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
     Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
     And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
     Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
     But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
     For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: herefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
     Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
    Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal.
     Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
     Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.  He giveth power to the faint; and to them that have no might he increaseth strength.
     Even the youths shall faint and be weary, and the young men shall utterly fall:
     But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:
    Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.
     For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.
    My brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. For in many things we offend all. If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body. Behold, we put bits in the horses' mouths, that they may obey us; and we turn about their whole body. Behold also the ships, which though they be so great, and aredriven of fierce winds, yet are they turned about with a very small helm, whithersoever the governor listeth. Even so the tongue is a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth! And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell. For every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, and of things in the sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed of mankind: But the tongue can no man tame; it is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison. Therewith bless we God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude of God. Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. Doth a fountain send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter? Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh.
     Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.
     But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God? Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?
    But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
     Who will render to every man according to his his deeds:
    To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are contentious, ot obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,
     Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile;
     But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile:
    And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you.
    Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.
    Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you
    Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. Fear God

  25. Interesting video, just had to add that the part with the neurotransmitters is drawn a bit wrong. They are passed between the round end as shown in the video, but it is the part with the many spiky ends that receives the transmitters

  26. Hey… I know that nobody will probably read this, but oh well, I just want to get it out there.
    So for a few weeks now, I've just been feeling really down… for no reason at all. Literally, no reason; I have nothing to complain about in my life right now, besides minor things like friend falling out and school. I've seemed to lost interest in doing most of the things I did used to find pleasure doing. I've started to start crying when I'm just alone with my thoughts, and I don't know why it's happening. I'm less energetic now, and less happy. I used to be the bubbliest person in school, I was constantly smiling, constantly laughing, and just… constantly happy. Whereas now… now I just don't seem to be so joyful and energetic. I've also lost my appetite a bit, again, I have no explanation for that either. Because I was feeling so down, I wondered weather I did have any possible symptoms of depression, so I did some online tests, to see what they'd say. I did 7 and 6 of them said that I might be mildly depressed, and on one of which I was told that I was one point off of being moderately depressed.

    Now, I know that what's happening probably isn't depression, I hope not anyways, but I don't know what's happening with me and I feel like I can't talk to anybody. My parents… they do not believe that mental illnesses are a thing, they feel like people just fake it for attention or whatever. My supposed best friends don't seem to care about what I have to say… or how I feel. Now there is one person that I could talk to, but… I'm afraid he'll tell somebody about this, and I really don't want him to. My fear will hold me back from asking him for some help about this…

    If anybody could respond, and suggest what may be happening, I'd appreciate it very much, but… if not, well… I'm just glad I told someone.


  28. I wanna fucking die already I’m done with life I have no meaning or purpose in my life no one truly cares til ur gone they say that’s til they all forget your even gone my name is jaylyn and I’m 12 im saying this now cause i may kill myself tonight goodbye

  29. imagine having clinical depression, anxiety, and ocd all at once with an unstable toxic environment 24/7. that’s my life

  30. You are mentally paralyzed and it’s just extremely hard to do any basic tasks. This affects you for a very long period of time. It’s NOT a short temporary phase you go through. This is a serious illness.

  31. All I wanna say is don't be toxic and just get a partner to "make you feel better" it hurts both of you most of the time. Some don't stop to understand your problems. Others will use your problems against you. I dont know where I was going with this.

  32. I'm 13 and have tried to commit suicide TWICE, i've told my mum but she said she doesn't remember me telling her that… ;-;

  33. oh my gosh! i had never heard of leaden paralysis before….finally an answer to why my legs feel heavy at times!!!! i was thinking it was because i was out of shape or something…so happy to realize this is actually a thing! thank you!

  34. Most of my family has/had depression and I really don't want them to worry about me or feel bad, that's why I don't tell them about it. Also, I often feel like getting help wouldn't change anything or that I'm hopeless so I feel even more discouraged

  35. Idk if I have depression, I had a harsh childhood that I won’t speak about, but when I was 6-14 I would sleepover at my cousin’s house, probably like every week, she was my best friend. Those were the happiest moments of my childhood, since age 10 I’ve thought of myself as, fat, ugly(because I had eczema), scab-face, worthless, and, disgusting, but most importantly I thought I didn’t deserve friends or love. My siblings hated me, I got bullied at school, and my life wad drop dead crap. I am now 17, I would like if someone tell me if it sounds like depression. I’ve never done this and I will never ever do this, but I used to have bad thoughts about killing myself, DONT BE ALARMED🚨 I don’t think that anymore 🙂 but to anyone who feels this way, a hand is always there, human or not(i dont judge) it is always there, because if no one understands that makes you stronger because they have never NEVER felt THIS pain

  36. I think the reason why people feel depression and axienty because they overthink about the future and past but do not focus on the present

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