Narrated Slideshow of Categories of Disabilities


Hi. This is Lisa Zdon. In this presentation, I’m providing an overview
of 13 Categories of disabilities. The information I’m providing is from the
U.S. Department of Education’s Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) website. The URL is https://sites.ed.gov/idea/ Autism Autism means a developmental disability significantly
affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident
before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with
autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental
change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. Autism does not apply if a child’s educational
performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance. A child who manifests the characteristics
of autism after age three could be identified as having autism if the criteria are satisfied. Deafness Deafness means a hearing impairment that is
so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with
or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Deaf-blindness Deaf-blindness means concomitant hearing and
visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other
developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education
programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. Emotional Disturbance Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting
one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked
degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory
interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings
under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness
or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms
or fears associated with personal or school problems. Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. Hearing Impairment Hearing impairment means an impairment in
hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational
performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. Intellectual Disability Intellectual disability means significantly
subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive
behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s
educational performance. Multiple Disabilities Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments
(such as intellectual disability-blindness or intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment),
the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated
in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Multiple disabilities does not include deaf-blindness. Orthopedic Impairment Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic
impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a
congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis),
and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns
that cause contractures). Other Health Impairment Other health impairment means having limited
strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli,
that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—
(i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder
or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia,
lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome;
and (ii) Adversely affects a child’s educational
performance. Specific Learning Disability Specific learning disability means a disorder
in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in
using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including
conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia,
and developmental aphasia. Specific learning disability does not include
learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities,
of intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic
disadvantage. Speech or Language Impairment Speech or language impairment means a communication
disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment,
that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury
to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional
disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational
performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or
closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language;
memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual,
and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing;
and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain
injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. Visual Impairment (including Blindness) Visual impairment including blindness means
an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational
performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. This concludes my presentation. Thank you for listening.

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