SciShow: FAQ Compilation


We get asked a lot of questions here at SciShow. Sometime we get a question that has maybe
never been asked before in the history of questions, and sometimes we get questions
that are so universally wondered, that they get asked over and over again. So, we’ve compiled some of those frequent
asks into one place, here, so hopefully, if you’ve ever wondered these curious questions,
you can get a whole bunch of answers right now. Recently, Patreon patron, Rob Margolis, reminded
us of two of these questions that come up a lot. The first, I hope you’re not wondering
right now, but if you are, I hope you recover quickly and can watch this video about what
causes migraines. If you’ve never had a migraine, you might
think it’s just a really bad headache. But if you’ve ever had them, or you know someone
who does, you know that they’re much worse — and much more complicated — than that. A true migraine is a multi-symptom disorder
of the central nervous system that affects the brain. But, yes, really bad headaches are a major
component of it — probably the single most significant and identifiable component. But it usually lasts longer than a normal
headache — anywhere from 4 hours to several days// — and brings a whole array of other
symptoms with it. Most migraine sufferers experience extreme
sensitivity to light and sound, and sometimes smells. They also commonly experience nausea,
vomiting, even fainting. What little relief they can find is generally only achieved by
being very still in a dark, silent room until the symptoms pass. And believe it or not, it gets worse. Migraines
also cause problems both before and after the headache. It’s different for everyone,
but the ordeal can start with symptoms as seemingly minor as constipation, weird food
cravings, neck stiffness, or excessive yawning. As the symptoms worsen, people generally enter
a phase called aura, in which they may experience things like vision disturbances — like seeing
shapes or lights, blurred or doubled vision, or even loss of vision — “pins and needles”
sensations in the extremities, weakness, and sometimes even slurred speech. Now, you might notice that these sound a lot
like the symptoms of a stroke, and in fact migraines have so many things in common with
strokes that doctors sometimes have to do tests to determine which disorder they’re
dealing with. After the headache has passed, most migraine
sufferers experience a period of weakness and fatigue that can last from a few hours
to a few days. Obviously this isn’t the sort of thing that
anyone wants to experience. So what causes it? Can it be controlled? Or at least treated? Doctors think migraines are probably caused
by a sharp drop in your brain’s levels of serotonin — a neurotransmitter that plays
a key role in regulating things like sleep and mood. And once that imbalance strikes,
it causes a whole cascade of effects. But what triggers this imbalance is complicated
and uncertain. We do know that one of the most important
factors is genetics. If one or both of your parents has experienced a migraine, odds are
that you will too. For reasons that we don’t understand, women are far more likely to have
migraines than men, and they’re even more likely to experience one during times of hormonal
changes, like puberty, menstruation, ovulation, pregnancy, when using hormonal contraceptives
or hormone replacements, and menopause. Beyond that, everyone’s triggers are different.
For many people, it may depend on stress, their activity level or their sleep schedule
— all things in which serotonin plays a role. And still others may be triggered by things
as seemingly random as bright lights, loud sounds, unusual or strong smells, or even
weather changes. The //treatment// of migraines is further
evidence that it’s not just a headache. It’s true that the headache itself can sometimes
be treated with pain relievers, although they’re often less effective. In addition to pain
relief, migraine sufferers may take medications that try to treat the source of attacks, like
by controlling the constriction of blood vessels in the brain, blood pressure, serotonin levels,
and inflammation. So clearly a migraine is more than just a
bad headache, remember that when you hang out with people who get them. If they’re
in a bad way, the biggest favor you can give them is just to let them be by themselves
in a dark room. You can just keep watching SciShow //quietly//. Rob’s second question is another that comes
up a lot, but is less painful…for humans anyway. Welcome to I Don’t Think It Means What You
Think It Means, where we look at bits of scientific theory that’ve wiggled their way into popular
culture and taken on a life of their own. Today we’re talking about Schrodinger’s
Cat, a famous thought experiment devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrodinger, who
helped piece physics back together after Einstein and his crew blew a giant honkin’ hole in
it back in the early 20th century. It can’t really be overstated how much of
a giant crap circus the 1920’s were for physicists. Until then, everything had pretty
much just been good old-fashioned Newtonian physics — where you could observe objects
moving, and predict how they’d react to various forces. But then along came new research
into subatomic particles that showed they didn’t act predictably at all. In fact,
sometimes stuff seemed to be two things at once. Like, an electron in a beam might act
like a particle sometimes and like a wave at other times. And to make things even more
— [heaves tense sigh, sort of like hyperventilating]– the more you try to observe and measure these
particles, the less naturally they seem to behave. Sphincter-say-what, now? [js: Um, it’s from
Wayne’s World and I think I’m trying to bring it back.] My friends, welcome to one of the biggest
mind-flogs of quantum mechanics; it’s called superposition — the idea that a particle
can exist in all of its theoretically possible states at the same time. So Schrodinger came up with this thought experiment
to help folks understand it: Say you have a cat and you put it in a steel chamber for
an hour with a vial of deadly gas, a Geiger counter, a hammer, and a tiny bit of something
radioactive. OK just bear with me. Now say there’s a 50/50 chance that one
of the radioactive atoms is going to decay within that hour. If one of the atoms decays,
the Geiger counter is going to trigger the hammer, shattering the vial of poisonous gas.
Really, Schrodinger? This is not the best way to get people behind the idea of funding
the sciences. So, there’s a 50% chance at the end of the hour that the vial has been
broken and the cat is dead, and an equally good chance that the vial hasn’t broken
and the cat’s just kickin’ it, wondering what’s for supper. But, what’s actually happening in the box?
According to quantum mechanics, any one of those radioactive atoms would be in a superposition
of being both decayed and not decayed at the same time. Because that’s how quantum objects
act. So then that decayed atom will have both killed and not killed the cat, right? Well
that’s the logical conclusion but the cat isn’t a quantum object. The cat is a big
normal thing that obeys old-fashioned Newtonian laws. So it, just like ever other cat in history
is either alive or dead. Schrodingers point, at least one of them is that the object is
subject to two separate sets of laws that can’t be reconciled. In order to know whether
the atom is decayed or not is to open the box as see if the cat is dead. But in quantum
mechanics, the state of superposition can’t be observed. So when the evil mad scientist
finally opens the chamber, to observe, the superposition collapses once the outcome is
ensured. Today, Schrodinger’s Cat is talked about
as some undead zombie cat or discussed at being dead and not dead, alive in the box.
But Schrodingers point wasn’t to prove you can make a cat both alive and dead but instead
prove that the quantum world doesn’t mesh well with the normal world. Alternatively
the point the universe is pretty freakin’ weird. There are other interpretations of
quantum mechanics that resolve the paradox but none of them are easy to test. My favorite
is of course the “Many Worlds” interpretation that states at the end of the experiment and
at the end of the superposition, alternate universes are created. But in this case, one
in which the cat is alive and one in which the cat is dead. And to be clear I don’t
like this interpretation because it’s the most likely one, I like it because it’s
such a excellent plot device for science fiction novels. Dreaming is one of the weirdest thing we do.
I mean, I don’t want to diminish all the other strange crap our bodies are capable
of, ‘cause a lot of it is cracked out on so many levels. But dreams are a special kind
of crazy. No matter how many dreams you have in your life, every once in a while you wake
up like, “WHAT THE HELL WAS THAT?” But as with everything else, science is helping
us understand why we dream, what our brains are up to when they do it, and why dreaming
may be critically important to the functioning of our awake brains. Try to stay awake for this, ‘cause it’s
really cool. People have been trying to understand dreams
since–well, since there’ve been people. But the person we associate most with the
science of dreaming is probably Sigmund Freud. In 1899 he wrote The Interpretation of Dreams,
where he suggested that dreams were largely symbolic and allowed us to sort through the
repressed wishes that piled up in our unconscious minds. And most of those wishes involve weird
sex stuff. Freud was kinduva perv, if you must know. It wasn’t until the 1950s, when scientists
became able to read the electrical activity of the brain, that we began to understand
what a dreaming brain was actually up to. Two researchers at the University of Chicago
— Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman — pioneered this research by hooking people
up to the newly-invented EEG machine and monitoring their brain activity while they slept. What
they thought they’d find was that a sleeping brain was a resting brain, but they discovered
exactly the opposite. They found that brain activity fluctuates
in a predictable pattern over a period of about 90 minutes. This cycle takes sleepers
from an initial period of drifting off, gradually into a really deep sleep with slower brain
activity, back into almost-waking. And this stage of sleep where the sleepers
were aaaaalmost awake again was the most interesting: brain activity in this phase was almost identical
to when people were awake. But even more weird, during this stage, the subjects became functionally
paralyzed–the only parts of their bodies that moved were their eyes, which darted back
and forth under their eyelids. So Aserinsky and Kleitman called this period
R.E.M. sleep, after the rapid eye movement that characterized it. They also called it
“paradoxical sleep,” because the subjects seemed to be awake, according to their brain
activity, even though they were basically dead to the world. I guess they figured these
names were better than “Sexually Aroused Sleep,” which is another rather common feature
of this stage. But another thing the scientists found was
that if REM sleepers were awakened, they reported having really vivid dreams that were often
emotionally intense. It wasn’t the only stage of sleep in which the subjects dreamed,
but it was the time they reported having the most lifelike dreams. It turns out that every
90 minutes or so, during the final stage of the sleep cycle, the brain phases into the
R.E.M. sleep and our brains start creating crazy narratives that last maybe 20 or 30
minutes. This is when you have those really vibrant dreams that can easily be confused
with reality. So WHYYYYY so busy, Sleeping Brain? And what’s
so important about dreaming that you have to paralyze your entire body in order to have
really realistic dreams? Well, there are probably several answers,
but one of them is that during all periods of dreaming, our brains are making important
connections between real-life experiences that will help us in our waking lives. These days, researchers are finding that Freud
was wrong about dreams in one important way: We don’t dream much about our hidden desires.
We mostly dream about what we did today. While we sleep, our brains are sorting through
what happened while we were awake, deciding which new experiences were important enough
to remember and which should get tossed, searching for links between seemingly unrelated events
that might be able to help us be a more successful human tomorrow. And it’s actually really
important that we do this while we’re asleep, because our conscious, waking brains are generally
too controlling to allow this kind of creative problem-solving. And this dream-time activity helps our waking
brains be better at things that require making connections and thinking outside the box.
Dreams have actually been responsible for some really important inventions and discoveries
in history. For instance, Dimitri Mendeleev came up with a system for the structure of
the periodic table of elements in a dream after months of grueling conscious thought
was getting him nowhere. And research shows that our brains are much
better at solving puzzles if they’re allowed to take a nap in the middle of doing one.
In a study in 2004, for instance, subjects were asked to search for links between two
sets of numbers. The subjects who napped solved the puzzle about 60% of the time, whereas
only 25% non-nappers were able to do it. In another study, where people were asked to
find connections between seemingly unrelated words, those who lapsed into R.E.M. sleep
between sessions solved 40% more puzzles than those who didn’t. So dreams are all about making associations
and finding patterns that our waking brains have a hard time detecting. But it seems to
work in slightly different ways in non-REM sleep than in REM sleep. During non-R.E.M. sleep, you dream, but the
dreams aren’t necessarily vivid, and they’re often about something you’ve been doing
or thinking about a lot. During these stages, people often report dreaming about kind of
boring stuff — like if you spent a lot of time in the car during the day, that night
you might dream about driving down a long street, stopping at a series of stop lights.
This might seem lame, but it’s actually useful to the brain in its own way: it’s
telling itself things it already knows–like “when you’re driving a car, you’re supposed
to stop at the stop lights.” So in non-REM sleep, it’s basically reinforcing existing
connections. But in REM sleep, we get to test out that
reinforced knowledge in a context that is virtually indistinguishable from real life.
It’s like our brain running simulations. So if you’ve been driving to your grandparents’
house in Boca Raton all day, and in non-REM sleep you spend a good 20 minutes practicing
stopping at traffic lights, during REM sleep your brain might have you trying to steer
a steamroller through Manhattan from the backseat. REM dreams can be very lifelike and very stressful,
but that’s part of it: A vivid REM dream is an opportunity to safely let us try something
difficult. Because our brains aren’t here to make friends.
Our brains are here to win. The evolutionary purpose of dreaming–like the evolutionary
purpose of virtually everything else we do–is to make us more successful animals tomorrow
than we were yesterday. So if during non-REM sleep, the brain is taking data from past
experience and fiddling with it to figure out how that might relate to the future, in
REM sleep, the brain’s actually trying to experience the future in order to test possibilities. So, maybe you’re making out with your algebra
teacher on Jay-Z’s yacht while wearing a banana suit. What of it? Does it mean you
subconsciously want to make out with your teacher? Maybe, but not necessarily. Does
the banana suit have something to do with penises? I dunno – -who am I, Freud? The thing
is, during REM sleep you can try that experience out with no consequences whatsoever. Another benefit of REM sleep is that it helps
us process emotions that our dunderheaded waking brains aren’t really equipped to
handle. Although the content of our dreams might be wacky, the emotions attached to them
are absolutely real. Remember, your dreaming brain is charged with working on real-life
problems, so if you feel really angry at your boyfriend in your dream, chances are you’re
probably pretty pissed at him–or maybe someone else you’re close to–in real life. The
stories our dreams create are essentially attempts to give our emotions a narrative
that can kind of suck the poison out of them and give them a form our brain can deal with
better. In fact, people who can’t experience REM sleep often experience other psychiatric
disorders. So, dreams help regulate traffic between our experiences, our emotions and
our memories, so we can dial down the crazy. And hey–if the outcome makes your rational
brain uncomfortable, well…. That’s just how sausage is made, folks. Since I’m on the topic of weird dreams and
REM sleep, a lot of you have said you’d like to know more about what’s called lucid
dreaming. This is when you become aware of the fact that you’re dreaming and can actually
direct the narrative of the dream. Since REM sleep is simulation time in the brain, lucid
dreaming is basically a simulation that lets a portion of your conscious brain in on the
action. Most of us can probably recall at least one lucid dream, and about 1 in 10 of
us have them regularly. Some lucid dreamers can even communicate with researchers studying
them through gestures like eye movements and hand-squeezes. What ultimately separates lucid dreams from
regular old REM sleep may lie in the physiology of the brain. During non-REM sleep, the cerebral
cortex — that’s your gray matter — loses its ability to associate with other parts
of the brain. This is probably why those dreams are more boring and less complex. But once
a dreamer reaches REM sleep, the cortex becomes active again and begins talking to other areas
of the brain — except for this one little part of the cortex–called the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex — that doesn’t reactivate. This is the region right about at your left
temple that’s responsible for, among other things, applying memories to other situations,
like planning stuff and predicting outcomes. This helps explain why REM sleep dreams are
so weird — your brain literally can’t tell what’s going to happen next. But during lucid dreaming, the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex actually does wake up, which is probably why we regain a sense of self-awareness
and can plot out stories for ourselves. Some people claim lucid dreaming can help
cure reccurring nightmares or even help cure depression and anxiety. The jury’s still
out on that, but dreaming itself–all kinds of dreaming–is definitely useful, and even
imperative, to the function of the brain. So, why are you still awake? Go take a nap
or something! First thing you should know if you’re having
a hard time getting some shuteye, is that you’re wired to sleep regular hours…going
to bed the same time each night and waking up at the same time each morning. Having a
regular wake-up time seems to correlate pretty highly with the ability to fall asleep consistently. This is because it keeps you aligned with
what’s known as your circadian rhythm, your body’s natural tendency to stay in sync
with the cycles of day and night. And you know what controls your body’s circadian
rhythm more than anything? Light. A lot of the help you get falling asleep comes
from hormones — they lower your heart rate and reduce your blood pressure and basically
let you relax. The key player here is the hormone melatonin,
and it’s regulated by your exposure to light. In darkness, it flows freely. But when you’re
exposed to light — whether natural or artificial — the release of melatonin stops. So you know what that means? No phones or
laptops in bed! The light emitted by electronics simulates sunlight, and confuses your body
into not knowing that it’s time to sleep. So scientists suggest at least an hour of
screen-free time before bed…though I am completely incapable of that myself. Another obvious enemy of sleep: caffeine [pic].
Even though you might think that cup of coffee after dinner might only affect you for an
hour or so, studies have shown that caffeine consumption as much as TWELVE HOURS before
bedtime is linked with insomnia. And even the way you //think// about sleep
can affect your sleep patterns. Worrying about not getting enough sleep is a common enough
cause of insomnia that it has its own name, Sleep Onset Insomnia. But you know what’s weird? A lot of the
time, when we feel like we can’t sleep — we actually ARE sleeping. When scientists rouse
patients in the first or second stages of sleep, more than 60% of them say that they
weren’t sleeping, even though they were. Now, of course, there’s a whole class of
medications that will help you sleep, from antihistamines to the pharmaceuticals known
as hypnotics, which include Ambien and Lunesta. However, research has shown that while patients
[pic] //can// fall asleep faster on hypnotics, the effect is small, adding only about 15
minutes to their sleep times. Other studies indicate that //our minds//
are significantly more powerful than any medications. In double-blind studies, patients who were
simply //told// that they were taking a sleep drug ended up sleeping far better than patients
who were told they weren’t. So, if you want to know how to sleep, the
answer is right there in your head. As part of our work answering the world’s
most asked questions, we asked you, our scishow viewers, some questions…and one was how
many hours per night you sleep. Bad news: Only 10% of you are sleeping more
than eight hours per night, and eight and a half is the doctor-recommended amount. And
OVER HALF of you report having trouble getting to sleep at least once per week. Oh but wait…we haven’t gotten to the fun
part…MEANINGLESS CORRELATIONS!!! The best sleepers for countries where we had
enough data to make a judgement were Saudi Arabians, with 76 percent reporting that they
experience insomnia infrequently or never. Most of Europe scored better than average,
with The Netherlands, Russia, and Spain all sleeping relatively soundly. The English speakers
in the US, UK, and Australia all had some of the worst scores. And, finally, unsurprisingly, our staggeringly
unscientific survey reports that people who commonly drink coffee, soda, energy drinks
or tea are all more likely to suffer from insomnia. Though maybe they’re just drinking
those things because they’re so tired! So now that you know all about migraines,
hypothetical cats, and sleep, on to the serious questions! Why? WHY do we have baby teeth? Missing teeth… not so cute on the lead singer
of the Pogues, but pretty dang cute on a smiling toddler. But why do humans have baby teeth, and why
do we lose them? Humans, like most mammals, are diphyodonts
[dye-FYE-oh-donts], meaning we grow two sets of teeth in our lifetimes — a permanent set
of adult teeth, and a deciduous set of baby teeth. Deciduous teeth are smaller and fewer in number,
because a toddler’s jaws are tiny and could never fit a full set of 32 adult teeth. Poor kids would look like something out of
a horror movie. So, instead, we begin life with 20 smaller
teeth, which start erupting out of our gums when we’re about six months old and are
fully in by the time we’re two and a half. Just like our permanent teeth, deciduous teeth
grow in pairs. Meaning that when two incisors erupt from the lower jaw, you can bet that
two incisors will soon erupt from the upper jaw. This allows our mouths to bite down and chew
evenly, and helps ensure that our jaws grow and wear down evenly, too. Now, as we get bigger, we need more teeth.
But instead of wedging these new teeth in between the old ones, we lose the old teeth
and grow a whole new set. That’s why baby teeth are called deciduous
— just like the leaves on deciduous trees, they’ll shed at a specific stage of development. Four new molars erupt in the back of our mouths
when we’re around five or six years old. Then our deciduous incisors — which are right
here [points to teeth in front of mouth] fall out and are replaced with permanent incisors.
By the time we reach puberty, we have an almost-full set of 28 permanent teeth. The last four emerge later in life. These
are the so-called “wisdom teeth,” molars in the back of our mouths. They were a good idea some 100 million years
ago when our jaws were bigger. But evolution has made our mouths smaller, and now these
molars crowd out other teeth and can cause pain, which is why a lot of us get them pulled. And being a diphyodont is actually kind of
a disadvantage in other ways, too. While it sounds nice to have an extra set
of something, we only get two sets of teeth in our lives. Polyphyodonts [pol-ee-fye-o-donts], on the
other hand, can grow and regenerate teeth multiple times. These include alligators, fish and even some
mammals, like elephants, who can regenerate their teeth up to six times, to help them
enjoy long lives of grinding up plants. But /our/ second set of teeth will just keep
wearing and breaking over time, so take care of them while you can, because they’re the
only ones you’ll get! Our final FAQ that we’ll share with you
today is one I’m pretty sure everyone has wondered about whenever you’ve really stopped
and thought about your eyebrows. Or arm hair. Or any hair. You’re probably quite happy that your armpit
hair isn’t dragging on the floor. So it’s good that there’s a system to
prevent that. But what is that system? Us humans grow hair all over our bodies — except
on our palms and the soles of our feet. But some of it, like leg hair, stops growing,
while the hair on our heads just seems to grow out forever. That’s because every hair on your body goes
through the same cycle — growing for a while and then falling out — but each /type/ of
hair spends a different amount of time growing, and grows at a different speed. Every hair begins the same way, in a phase
of the cycle called anagen. During anagen, blood flow starts to ramp up
at the base of the follicle, feeding oxygen to specialized stem cells. These cells begin
rapidly dividing and producing keratinocytes [ker-AT-in-oh-sites], which form the root
of the hair. As the expanding mass of keratinocytes is
pushed toward the surface of the skin, the cells die, releasing a protein called keratin
[CARE-a-tin], which holds the strand of hair together. Eventually that strand pops out of your skin.
So the visible part of the hair is entirely dead, which is why, thankfully, it doesn’t
hurt to get your hair cut — though try explaining that to a three-year-old. During anagen, hair can grow up to 1 and a
quarter centimeters every month, depending on where it’s located on your body. The second phase is called catagen [CAT-a-jen],
and lasts about two weeks. Here, the blood supply is cut off at the bottom of the follicle,
which stops the production of new keratinocytes. So for that particular hair, the party is
over. The follicle then shrinks to about a sixth
of its original size, and the existing hair strand is pushed closer the surface. The third phase is called telogen [TELL-o-jen],
otherwise known as the resting phase, where the follicle remains dormant for one to four
months. Finally, the hair is released, or shed, when
the follicle dilates, and starts the anagen phase again. So, how long a hair on your body gets, depends
on how long it’s in the anagen phase, and how /fast/ it grows during that time. The hair on your scalp, for example, stays
in anagen for two to six years, which is why it can grow so long. Other hair types, like eyebrows and eyelashes
and body hair have a short anagen phase — only 30 to 45 days. But they also grow much more slowly, with
eyebrows, for instance, growing only 4.2 millimeters every month. This is my eyebrow closeup. Hey… As for how your hairs know when to grow and
when to stop, that’s something scientists are still trying to figure out. It’s known that genetics can lead to longer
or shorter anagen phases in certain hair types. But the current thinking is that your hairs
get their instructions — by way of chemical growth signals — from stem cells in the skin. And considering how extremely inconvenient
it would be for all of the hairs on your body and all mammals’ bodies to just continue
growing forever, it makes sense that there’s a system for making sure they don’t grow
too long. Thanks for watching this Frequently Asked
Compilation video. Please keep asking us questions! You can ask in the comments, on Patreon, Tumblr,
Facebook, Snapchat, email, via pigeon–if you can figure that out, we’ll have questions
for you too! And in the meantime, keep getting smarter with us by going to youtube.com/scishow
to subscribe.

About the author

Comments

  1. Why are some repetitive motions such as knitting or crocheting or nail biting calming? I knit and it is calming but I've never understood why.

  2. wtf?!…when said the migraine stuff I have like all the symptoms….except the headache part…I know this sounds weird but I'm not joking

  3. So, like… the part on dreams… ok… does that mean that like people with depression and anxiety are more likely to have nightmares/night terrors? I mean, if dreams are thought to process your emotions that you had while you were awake, then I makes sense that people with mental illness in some form would have darker dreams?

  4. The segment on dreams is really interesting. In my early teens to about twenty I would get sleep paralysis quite often. Being aware you're still in that state is pretty terrifying. Lucid dreaming with a nightmarish panic. Lovely!

  5. 17:31 … wh….what? wait… what?…. seriously??….. jesus christ, suddenly having energy after those "sleepless nights" makes SO much sense.

  6. My mom, my sister and I get THE WORST migraines in the world. Oh my word. My mom has to sit in her dark room with a cold blanket for days throwing up, and not able to do anything. My sister and I have bad migraines but not as bad as my mom's. My mom's vision issues with migraines is as though she is 'squinting through a straw.' They really suck :/

  7. I got my first migraine when I was 12 and it was certainly scary. I only get them a few times a year now but I get all those annoying symptoms (speech is similarly weird as it is when you get a stroke, I can't really see,like if I see my face in the mirror it looks "wrong", and my face goes numb). Because I have circulation problems I do worry if I had a stroke I might think it's a migraine (my father had a stroke a few months ago and didn't realize anything was wrong). But I try not to think about it too much☺

  8. Weird Question: What happens if you break a light bulb while powered? Would it make a massive fireball for a split second?

  9. sooooo…3.1 hours of sleep a night average is bad right? might be why i feel like hammered shit every day.

  10. I have a science question: Sometimes when you swim in the sea, the water changes back and forth between hot and cold. Why is that and how can the water continue to be out of thermal equilibrium in that way?

  11. I can talk to people near me, i even know who it is while im still sleeping. It freaks people out at first because its usually me asking them to wake me up lol.

  12. I thought lucid dreaming was dreaming in super high detail such that dreams were indistinguishable from reality. By your definition, all of my dreams are lucid, and none of my dreams have ever been lucid by my definition. i.e. I control my dreams, but they are normally like mario or anime.

    Also for the migraine section, wah… normal headaches don't last 4 hours+?

  13. I have a question: How big a field of solar panels would we need to replace ALL other power plants? And how much would it cost?

  14. 17:01 THAT EXPLAINS WHY I HATE IT WHEN MY AUNT TURNS THE LIGHT ON AND NEVER TURNS IT OFF EVEN THO SHE LEAVES FOR LIKE AN HOUR AND I'M JUST TRYING TO SLEEP

    well that and because i love the dark so much that her turning on the light all of a sudden is physically painful

  15. Lucid dreaming is fricking great! I rarely have them, but the moment of "Hey, this can't possibly be real so I must be asleep," is one of the most enjoyable realizations there are.

  16. I used to get migraines but no longer after getting glasses. So, for me, they were caused by eyestrain. If I got one I'd have an almighty splitting heatache which would make it hard for me to talk. I'd have to lie down in a pitch dark room with no sound for about 3 days. I'd go to sleep in excruciating pain and wake up in excruciating pain. By the third day you begin to ask "is this ever going to end?". I also felt like puking most of the time.

    I noticed that the pain reduced on a heartbeat and then grows in intensity. So, I enjoy every heartbeat then ignore the time in between. It's not much relief but when you're in that much pain any relief is welcome.

    Oh, and taking even the strongest over the counter painkillers have absolutely no effect.

  17. the doctor debunked 8 or 8,5 hours of sleep have been debunked though, the minimum is 6 hours in general but it varies a lot per person

  18. So I guess every single day of my life I save the world from being dominated by a terrorist organization… Because that’s what my dreams are every single night.

  19. Last night I dreamt that i was able to do a bunch of pushups, and I genuinely thought it happened until I got to the gym today and realized that I am actually a weakling.

  20. They should do what causes tension migraines next he kind of left it out I struggle with tension migraines it's caused by nerve in my neck that becomes pinched in between vertebrae it is probably one of the most painful things you could go through you can't move your head you can't move your shoulders or your arms it hurts to breathe and not only that it kind of feels like your skull is being caved in at the same time it's being poked with a hot fire poker it's terrible and for anyone else who struggles with tension migraines like I'm so sorry

  21. It's kinda odd but also relieving how both my parents had their wisdom teeth pulled out (many years ago) but I didn't have to.

  22. I wasn’t under controlled circumstances, or observed or anything, but lucid dreaming helped me to overcome terrible nightmares I used to have. They used to happen to me all the time at maybe age 12-13? I explain to people that I came to an agreement with my brain, and I did so by confronting a very Jungian shadow like entity in my dreams. This is really weird, I know, but it happened. I had to confront a strange part of myself, in my dreams, and since then I haven’t had any night terrors but for one incident.

  23. Oh my god, I've had dreams where I'm trying to drive a car from the back seat. I ended up driving off a bridge and woke up with sleep paralysis.

  24. I would slightly argue about your comment in regards to rem dreams and no consequences. What about the lingering mental consequences of those dreams where you make out We have your seventh grade algebra teacher and some rappers Yacht dressed in a banana suit

  25. During one of my only migraines I watched Cloverfield. Im not sure if that made the experience better or worse. But christ it screwed with me when I was in the aura stage you mentioned.

  26. Why do I dream about extremely random things that aren't connected to things I do that day?
    They have absolutely no relation to my life.

  27. Why do some people have dreams of being others? I'm usually not me in my dreams, or anyone that I know. I'm just random people. This doesn't match up with the idea that you're working through things that have happened.

  28. Food can play a role: migraine sufferers might have an overactive histamine response to certain kinds of foods like strawberries, processed or canned and/or smoked meats & fish, fermented foods… check out Functional Foods on Instagram, they recently posted about it…

  29. What about ear hair and nose hair, You get older and it seems to grow faster. Did not trim my ear and nose hairs in my twenties or thirties

  30. Hmph weird when I get migraines I get hangry and work out til I puke then I nap for an hour and im good. Usually my nost productive period 😭🤣😂 I livid dream and wake up dazed and confused.

  31. I can answer this with Google in about 5 seconds but why did early forms of medications use mercury in there compounds so often?

  32. Coffee does not effect me as it does most others.
    I drink it all day, right up until bedtime.
    It's caffeine seems ineffective.
    But let me have a few sips of tea anywhere close to evening and I'm up all night. lol

  33. We are not smart.

    Our brains are smart, selecting and processing all kind of information, it's like we are a launcher and our brains are the background processing unit, the brain tells us things but we can't tell nothing to our brain… Sorry

  34. I often dream about things that interest me, whether or not they relate to what I do during any particular day. In one dream, for example, I met wildlife film host Nigel Marven and neurologist & author Oliver Sacks at a conference on women's issues in developing nations. We were listening to a Pakistani lady speak. Unfortunately I woke up before she'd gotten far into her talk.

    For several years now, I've been keeping a dream diary to record interesting dreams like that as soon as I wake up. I find that doing so has made my dreams become more vivid and detailed. I've also recognised recurring themes and patterns in my dreams, which helps me gain insight into some of what my subconscious is working through. (These themes are very specific to me, not standard dream symbolism of any sort.) It's very interesting, and I highly recommend it!

  35. 3 years too late, but I’m watching (listening to) this in the dark with a migraine and it was suuuper comforting to have Hank wish me a quick recovery.

  36. what about causal polarity like the mostly out come is steered that way by the box the cat the giger counter the other atoms in the mass of a radioactive element also to whats to stop the cat from knocking over the vil its self because shiney and it feels like it at the moment like a cat toy? cat do have prefence over what toys they like and dont always want to play….

  37. What I want to know, is why I can continue dreaming when I wake up. That is, as long as I keep my eyes shut.

  38. Have you ever seen elephants come up to white people and " ask " for dental work. Thats pretty baller.

  39. Lucid dreaming isn’t an issue for me… I am one of the 1in10 who do this regularly….however, Lucid nightmares, are very much a problem!

  40. Explain me this, why former restaurant waitstaff dream about going back to work on a very busy shift and not been able to find coffee for a costumer? Everybody I've asked say they had this dream several times. I usually wake up from this super stressing dream with relief not wanting to go back to sleep right away (or else I'll go back to the same dream).

  41. Technically, you ARE awake in the first stage of sleep. People often slip into it doing familiar tasks (if you've ever driven home and realized you'd just…forgotten…the drive, congratulations, that was stage one of sleep.) It's basically a "space out."

  42. If you have to ask why we have butt hair you haven't even tried to remove it. The answer is sweat, chaffing and itchiness. Imagine having to walk around your entire life with a perpetually burning area of your skin rubbing itself to blisters, without the ability to sanitarily moisturize the area.

  43. I once was in a lucid dream which I knew was one, and it wasn't going so well so I woke myself up. In lucid dreaming you can figure out a way to do that. So I woke up from that dream, but woke up into another lucid dream which I only figured out was another one after about 20 mins. Guess I had my own Inception

  44. It's 2:40 am. I just woke up 11:27 seconds in to this video. I dozed off while watching a video about life on earth. 😂😂😂 perfect video to end up on while asleep.

  45. no, Freud was not wrong. If you'd read his book you'd know he also says we dream about what we did that day: 'I must begin with an assertion that in every dream it is possible to find a point of contact with the experiences of the previous day. This view is confirmed by every dream that look into, whether my own or anyone else’s.' And that he mentions others who have observed this before him, and before the really expensive MRI scans we have today: '…Robert [1886, 46], Strümpell [1877, 39], Hildebrandt [1875, 11] and Hallam and Weed [1896, 410 f.].' But Freud says that the bits and pieces from the day that the brain goes through are selected and mashed up in such a way that they relate to our hidden desires.

  46. On my 3rd migrain this week 🙁 and this one has been ongoing for nearly 2 days straight, I'm bored of lying down in hope of it going away, I'm glad that I have a gun safe and given the key to someone else since me pulling a trigger is highly likely at this point

  47. I suffer (well my husband is the one who suffers actually) from parasomnia. I'm not paralyzed as I should be during REM sleep which has resulted in me biting my husband while asleep, hitting him with my fist, kicking him. He's a very brave man 😂

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